Economic development will often result in displacement of human populations. This can take the form of direct physical relocation, or economic displacement such as loss of livelihoods or altered access to natural resources. However, displacement does not need to be adverse. A well-designed and well-implemented resettlement plan can turn project-induced displacement into a development opportunity. Conversely, failure to adequately address displacement and resettlement impacts entails a steep opportunity cost, such as delays due opposition from displaced persons and their advocates.
In planning for and managing displacement and resettlement impacts, CCCS strongly advocates treating displaced persons as project beneficiaries. Facilitating frequent stakeholder engagement during preparation of the detailed design plan, CCCS works to gain buy-in from all stakeholder parties for valuation, compensation and entitlement decisions regarding lost physical and economic assets. We also engage stakeholders to define measures for improving the living standards of displaced persons during and after project preparation and implementation. In our experience, this approach helps to prevent breakdown of established project-community relationships and resulting social disarticulation.
Recognizing that every project needs a unique solution to its expected or potential displacement and resettlement impacts, CCCS’ general approach entails a sequence of:
- Project risk and impact assessment
- Ongoing consultation with local governments and displaced parties
- Socio-economic survey and/or census of displaced persons
- Valuation of affected stakeholder plots and other assets
- Design of compensation and rehabilitation measures
- Formulation of a framework and/or plan for land acquisition, resettlement and livelihood restoration
- Monitoring, auditing, and evaluation of plan implementation
In 2008, CCCS was contracted to assist in project processing by providing specialized inputs related to integrated social and involuntary resettlement measures for India Ministry of Railways. In this capacity, we reviewed relevant policy documents of the Asian Development Bank and the Government of India (land acquisition laws, compensation and entitlement guidelines) at both the central and state levels. Working with a local Indian team of specialists, CCCS formulated appropriate planning instruments in close consultation with project-affected rural and tribal populations, ensuring the full disclosure of information to them. A critical element of CCCS’ work with the India Railway Sector Investment Project was to devise a Resettlement Framework to guide resettlement planning for the current and future tranches of the sector loan. Similar work was done for the Indigenous Peoples Development Framework. CCCS suggested resettlement improvement mechanisms for several Railway Sector Investment sub-project areas—with special emphasis upon matters of project planning and implementation monitoring instruments. We were also the principal consultants tasked with finalizing the resettlement and Indigenous Peoples planning documents in consultation with the executing agency and project-affected peoples, and with providing training in implementing the Resettlement Plans to local project implementation offices.
CCCS assisted the Bangladesh PPIDF by developing a new Environmental and Social Safeguards Framework (ESSF), which outlined operating procedures for addressing environmental and social issues associated with project planning, development and operation. In this process, we evaluated the resettlement and Indigenous Peoples safeguard policy guidelines of the Government of Bangladesh and the Infrastructure Development Finance Company Limited (IDCOL) and formulated a composite Social Safeguard Framework (SSF) for IDCOL and its PPIDF. CCCS then authored Resettlement Frameworks (RF) and Indigenous Peoples Development Frameworks (IPDF) in the context of an Integrated Social Safeguards Framework (ISSF).
The Weda Bay Nickel Project encompasses a nickel and cobalt mine and a hydrometallurgical processing plant in Central Halmahera and East Halmahera Regencies, North Maluku Province, eastern Indonesia. CCCS assists the WBN Project by facilitating project planning and report preparation to IFC requirements. Specifically, CCCS has taken the lead in preparing the project's Environmental, Social and Health Impact Assessment (ESHIA), including a comprehensive Resettlement Framework (RF) and a Compensation Framework (RF).